Throughout the world clothing industry powers, are deeply engraved with the unique brand of national tradition. The traditional costume craft represents the “living” soul and connotation of a national culture. The function and important responsibility of colleges and universities is to excavate, protect and inherit the unique national culture, cultivate new people of the times who assume the responsibility of national rejuvenation, and finally realize its cultural value. This is a major strategic issue related to the national strength and prosperity of the country and the cause handed down from generation to generation.
2. STATUS QUO OF INHERITANCE AND PROTECTION OF TRADITIONAL COSTUME HANDCRAFTS IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
In the new era of China, colleges and universities have become the main force and explorers of traditional handicraft protection by taking advantage of their own advantages and cooperating with all sectors of society. It is an unshirkable strategic direction for colleges and universities to excavate and protect the people-oriented cultural heritage and innovation, and focus on the sustainable cultivation of inheritors .
However, the current situation of colleges' and universities' inheritance and protection of traditional handicrafts must be urgently changed:
Firstly, some colleges and universities have not yet played their heritage effectiveness. There are phenomena such as cognitive bias, slow action, inappropriate methods and little effectiveness.
Secondly, from the viewpoint of duties and obligations, the protection, inheritance and innovation of intangible cultural heritage has become a more difficult problem faced by colleges and universities. At present, there are few traditional craft schools and majors that can provide employment prospects and study, which leads to a serious “derailment” between the education of colleges and universities and students' career selection.
Thirdly, in the face of the declining folk arts and their production techniques, the reality that the number of traditional crafts inheritors is decreasing year by year and some traditional crafts are facing discontinuity and loss, it is urgent to rescue traditional crafts.
3. HIGHLY COGNIZANT OF THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING AND RESEARCHING “INHERITANCE + INNOVATION” IN TRADITIONAL COSTUME HANDCRAFTS
Traditional handicrafts are the cornerstone of traditional national culture, with a long history, national characteristics, mature technology and exquisite craftsmanship, and have unique regional significance in the course of human history . As a branch, traditional costume handicrafts are an important part of China's intangible cultural heritage and a “living” culture. The inheritance, excavation and protection of traditional crafts in colleges and universities are of great importance to promote the diversity of traditional culture in China.
3.1. Importance of Traditional Costume Handcrafts
As the largest ethnic group in the world, the traditional costumes of the Han nationality only exist in film and television historical dramas in fragments, and their realistic inheritance and historical excavation are not ideal, which is the lack of the nation. It is significant to protect and inherit traditional costume handicrafts.
The research on Han traditional costume handicraft art in colleges and universities is incorporated into the teaching and research system, especially the costume design is the starting link of professional concept orientation in the costume industry chain and the key way of professional talent training and output. Its teaching quality is the fundamental factor that directly affects the development of the costume industry. The establishment of a traditional costume handicraft teaching studio in the mode of cultivating inheritors in universities is an entry point for people-oriented cultural inheritance, focusing on sustainable cultivation of inheritors, which is of far-reaching significance. Traditional costume handicrafts have six characteristics: ecological value, cultural value, creative value, emotional value, artistic value, and economic value. Teaching promotes and encourages inheritors to start their own business and innovation, and eventually realize their market value.
3.2. Regeneration of Traditional Dress Craftsmanship
Firstly, it is the awakening of ideological awareness. “Of the nation, of the world.” The only way out of traditional costume culture is to preserve, inherit and develop traditional costume crafts effectively.
Secondly, in the face of the increasingly sophisticated international dress culture, the clothing industry is rising to play the card of national tradition alone. The preferential zero quotas and zero tariffs for international bilateral trade fall precisely on clothing textiles with ethnic characteristics.
Thirdly, the two factors are driven by external factors. The first of them is the evolution of artistic thinking. The shift from modernism to post-modernism has subconsciously led to the regeneration of traditional costume craftsmanship. The second is the negative impact of industrial civilization, which has facilitated and accelerated the regeneration of traditional costume handcrafts.
Fourthly, it is the charm of traditional costume handicrafts. With creative, personalized charm, high emotional appeal and traditional cultural connotations, the oriental art style is moving towards the international fashion stage to promote the revival of traditional Chinese costume handicrafts.
3.3. Development Trends in Traditional Chinese Costume Handcrafts
The trends are mainly reflected in four areas.
First, it is an integral part of the national strategy, a manifestation of cultural confidence and a source of culture towards the center of the world.
Second, the government is taking the lead in excavating and rescuing traditional costume handcrafts that are on the verge of being lost.
Third, it highlights the ethnicity of traditional costume culture and develops traditional costume handicrafts, which are valued and supported by the government.
Fourth, the “inheritance + innovation” approach to the development of traditional costume crafts is a combination of science, technology, culture and art.
3.4. Professional Teaching Model With “Inheritance + Innovation” Connotations
What is the core of the teaching model? It is a professional education with the connotation of “inheritance + innovation” that responds to the call of the times, which is the practical grasp and exploration direction for the deepening of education and teaching reform in colleges and universities. On the basis of building an education system, it is necessary to take market as the orientation, learn to apply, go to society and integrate into the times, and improve the quality of talent training. “Heritage + innovation” is the cultivation of students' innovative spirit and ability, and entrepreneurship education is the effective enhancement of students' self-employment ability.
4. “INHERITANCE + INNOVATION” TEACHING PRACTICE THAT INTEGRATES TRADITIONAL COSTUME HANDCRAFTS AND REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
The idea of teaching traditional costume handicrafts in higher education is to combine regional characteristics with the concept of “inheritance + innovation”, the first of which is to create a climax in the study of traditional costume handicrafts in specialist courses, turning beginners into enthusiasts. The second is to increase the professional training of traditional costume handicraft enthusiasts, establish a place for in-depth study of traditional costume handicraft outside the classroom, and turn enthusiasts into new generations of inheritors through the training of tutors and older generations of inheritors. The third is to train the new generation of inheritors to participate in social practice, to start their own businesses and to innovate, and to turn the common inheritors into individual inheritors.
4.1. Promoting the Diversified Teaching Model of Majors With the Connotation of “Inheritance + Innovation”
The focus is on two aspects: one is to strengthen the construction of teachers' ranks.
The first resource for talent cultivation of “inheritance + innovation” is the teaching staff. The “inheritance + innovation” education of clothing specialty in colleges and universities must attach importance to the construction of the teaching staff, implement the “inheritance + innovation” teaching ability improvement plan for teachers, and improve the overall quality of the teaching staff. First, the schools can regularly send teachers abroad to participate in the relevant training of “inheritance + innovation”, and take temporary jobs in garment enterprises to improve teachers' professional ability; Second, the schools can also pay attention to hiring experts in the field of fashion design to enrich the teaching staff of “inheritance + innovation” education, and undertake certain educational and teaching tasks of “inheritance + innovation”; there is a need to form a combination of outside and inside school, give play to the respective advantages of external staff and teachers, and form a teacher guidance team with high theoretical and practical abilities.
On the other hand, it is necessary to make use of social platforms to jointly build “inheritance + innovation” curriculum resources.
The cooperation between schools and enterprises is the combination of clothing related theoretical knowledge and enterprise cases, the specific implementation of the integration of “theory teaching + social practice entrepreneurship teaching”, the cultivation of students' awareness and innovation ability to participate in social practice, the guidance of students to master the methods of project design and development, and the cultivation and development of “inheritance + innovation” courses. For example, it is a way to cooperate with the provincial foreign art exhibition center to build a trans regional cooperation alliance, use the social platforms such as museums, Manchu clothing exhibitions, tourist attractions, and tourism festivals to introduce clothing and fabric products with local customs, and carry out experiential teaching to provide curriculum resources for students to improve their “inheritance + innovation” literacy.
4.2. Policy Support, Being Based on Inheritance, and Improving the Number and Quality of Inheritors
First, it is necessary to encourage the introduction of policies to promote the development of traditional clothing handicrafts. Through guiding the inheritors' new understanding of the development direction, market positioning and other aspects of their own skills, the inheritors' enthusiasm for learning can be stimulated, and they can participate in training to obtain various completion certificates, thus gaining a certain degree of social recognition.
Second, through targeted training, the colleges and universities have given full play to the advantages of teachers and talents, which can change the inheritance mode, namely, protecting inheritors and cultivating new inheritors, and achieved project improvement.
Third, the colleges organize students to receive practical training, train a large number of excellent graduates in their corresponding majors, to train students to be a growing team of inheritors of traditional handicrafts.
4.3. Characteristic Teaching, Being Based on Innovation, to Make Traditional Skills Reborn
The first is to innovate traditional handicrafts and complete the mission by relying on the specialty that can realize complementary advantages.
The second is to incorporate the cultural inheritance and innovation of the region into the teaching plan of colleges and universities, provide consulting services for the national cultural creativity of the region, establish experimental training bases, and protect and inherit the national culture.
The third is the innovation of handicraft techniques. The combination of traditional cultural and technological production elements with modern technology can refine a new creative design that is more in line with the aesthetic perspective of contemporary people. For example, the cross-border “traditional clothing handicraft elements” can be organically combined with professional courses; students can independently design, sample, produce and perform the traditional costumes; the exhibition platform for students' independent entrepreneurship built by colleges and universities launched traditional costume and clothing design, production and tourism product research and development to the market .
4.4. Combining Business and Learning to Boost Industry with Benefits, So Resources Can Be Integrated and Shared
The first is to hold the traditional clothing handicraft technology performance and work display, which directly displays the connotation of the traditional clothing handicraft culture, so that all sectors of society pay wide attention to the social value of traditional handicrafts. At the same time, through the organization and planning of various events, the goal of promoting advantageous industries and integrating and sharing resources can be achieved.
The second is to hold a design product promotion meeting. Tourism companies in the region are invited to participate and cooperate. The purpose of the activity is to obtain economic benefits through the tourism industry and promote the market development of traditional clothing and handicrafts.
4.5. Excavating Inheritance, Retaining Traditional Cultural Memory Through Scientific Research, and Displaying and Promoting Cultural Connotation Through Communication
First, to record and preserve traditional techniques of characteristic culture, traditional handicrafts eliminated from the market need not only to be inherited and retained, but also to be recognized by the society. The college and the government jointly funded and cooperated in compiling books and making documentaries, and organized special personnel to take charge of recording in various forms such as writing, photography, video shooting and recording.
Second, it is to build a platform for inheritance and innovation of traditional clothing handicrafts. The protection of traditional clothing handicraft is a systematic project. What colleges and universities inherit is the profound connotation of handicraft culture history. The essence of traditional clothing handicraft inheritance lies in cultural inheritance. In order to train students to become the main force and explorers of the protection of traditional clothing and handicrafts, colleges and universities should build a practice platform for the inheritance and innovation of traditional clothing and handicrafts, and actively support students to establish inheritance awareness, entrepreneurship, and improve entrepreneurial ability.
5. TAKING THE TEACHING STUDIO AS PLATFORM TO IMPROVE ABILITY OF INDEPENDENT ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF “INHERITANCE + INNOVATION”
Under the leadership of the clothing design professional organization in colleges and universities, a traditional clothing handicraft teaching studio with regional characteristics will be established, which will be jointly managed by tutors and students for extracurricular in-depth learning and in-depth research on traditional clothing handicrafts, such as textile handicrafts, dyeing and printing handicrafts, clothing production handicrafts, embroidery handicrafts, etc. With this platform, the practical ability of “innovation + heritage” will be improved.
5.1. Establishing a Regional Characteristic Teaching Studio of Traditional Costume Handcrafts
The first is that teachers' teaching ability of “inheritance + innovation” should be improved step by step. High quality teachers are the guarantee of “inheritance + innovation” talent training. On the one hand, teachers are regularly dispatched to participate in the relevant training of “inheritance + innovation”, participate in the process production of clothing enterprises, and improve the professional ability of teachers. On the other hand, facing the society, the schools can hire experts in the field of clothing design and older generations of inheritors to undertake teaching tasks, carry out the activity of “identifying teachers and practicing”, and train and promote the history, cultural background, design cognition, clothing techniques, etc. of traditional costume handicrafts, in order to form a teacher guidance team combining theoretical and practical advantages inside and outside the school.
The second is to cultivate common inheritors and provide services such as entrepreneurship guidance and market operation. For example, design of traditional clothing accessories, handicrafts for accessories, organization of tie-dyeing public welfare activities in welfare homes, and design of Han style clothing (Han style clothing club, campus association, free of charge guiding enthusiasts to make their own).
The third is to cut into the simulation operation characterized by modern application and product development, in order to enhance the vitality of training individual inheritors to innovate traditional costume handicrafts. For example, to cultivate students' ability to start their own businesses, the special studio can conduct practical drills according to the operation mode of small enterprises. In combination with the national industrial planning, the research focuses on garment handicrafts and Han clothing, and focusing on the research of film and television clothing, students can take turns to exercise their comprehensive abilities, and improve their brand awareness, corporate culture awareness, and business philosophy awareness.
5.2. Integrating Traditional Costume Handcrafts with Regional Characteristics and Building a Platform of “Inheritance + Innovation”
First, it is necessary to increase the vitality of teaching traditional clothing handicrafts in professional courses, select excellent tutors, focus on the historical background, culture, technology and value of traditional clothing handicrafts, increase the teaching time of traditional clothing and handicraft courses, and guide beginners to gradually become enthusiasts.
Second, it is also necessary to establish a training platform for the older generation of inheritors to “help and guide”, set up a traditional clothing handicraft teaching studio, and organize amateurs to carry out extracurricular in-depth learning. Tutors and students can be jointly responsible for management, hiring older generations of inheritors to teach, carrying out the activity of “mentoring and mentoring”, and training and promoting traditional costume handicrafts.
Third, it is a must to establish the Society of Traditional Costume Technology. Students will be responsible for management and in-depth study of traditional garment handicrafts, such as textile handicrafts, dyeing and printing handicrafts, garment production handicrafts, embroidery handicrafts, accessories handicrafts, etc., and they need to carefully consider the design of traditional clothing accessories. The schools can organize tie dyeing public welfare activities in welfare homes, and design Han clothing (hanfu club, campus association, free to guide enthusiasts to make it by themselves).
Fourth, innovation is the driving force for inheritance and development . The students can take turns to exercise their comprehensive ability, cut into the simulation operation characterized by modern application and product development, and integrate into the social practice place, to enhance the vitality of training new generation inheritors to innovate traditional clothing handcrafts. For example, it is a way to simulate small business entities, to study the production of ancient clothing technology in film and television, clothing handicrafts and Han clothing research.
The colleges and universities should integrate the advantages of teaching and training, based on the needs of the market, responds to the call of the times, bring sources of power and talent reserves for the development of the garment industry, and ultimately promote their social values through the inheritors to run a satisfactory education for the people. “Heritage+ innovation” is the eternal theme of the teaching and research of clothing design majors in universities, and the key to protecting the inheritance of intangible cultural heritage is to cultivate inheritors. “Of the nation, of the world”. It is the eternal theme of the teaching and research of fashion design major in colleges and universities to integrate the “living” national cultural connotation with regional characteristics into the “inheritance + innovation” practical ability of inheritors.
Cite This Article
TY - CONF AU - Jiarong Han PY - 2022 DA - 2022/11/21 TI - Teaching Research of Traditional Costume Handcrafts in Colleges and Universities BT - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Arts, Design and Contemporary Education (ICADCE 2022) PB - Athena Publishing SP - 379 EP - 384 SN - 2949-8937 UR - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.221107.058 DO - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.221107.058 ID - Han2022 ER -