# Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Education Studies: Experience and Innovation (ICESEI 2022)

The Psychological Concept of Giftedness as a Form of Knowledge Organization and Methodological Principles of Its Study in the Context of the Modern Educational Situation
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## 1. INTRODUCTION

The complexity of the study of the psychological concept of giftedness is due to the fact that this concept arises and develops not only within the framework of psychology as an already formed science. The process of genesis and development of this concept begins long before psychology stands out as an independent science, characterized by its own subject and its own specific research methods.

In the genetic sense, giftedness is not a specific psychological concept. An analogue of this concept exists in everyday thinking and is reflected in natural language. The phenomenon of giftedness in the history of civilization appears, accordingly, not only as a psychological, but also as a socio-cultural phenomenon, which is of great importance in the life of society at different stages of its development, from the moment when the human individual begins to play an active role in the life of society. This phenomenon is conceptualized in philosophical, religious, ethical, aesthetic, pedagogical and psychological thought. Each of these ways of conceptualization has its own historical profile, and at the same time, one can note their interweaving, mutual influence, as a result of which there is an exchange of semantic elements between different spheres of human knowledge. The result of this is the formation of the concept of giftedness.

## 2. THE CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH ON THE PHENOMENON OF GIFTEDNESS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND THE PROBLEM STATEMENT

If we turn to research in the field of the psychology of giftedness, then for all their large number and success, there are controversial and contradictory results, for example, in revealing the internal nature of giftedness, the conditions and factors for its manifestation and implementation. At present, the state of the psychological concept of giftedness has reached a stage of development when its further improvement and productive practical application is impossible without meaningful integration of various approaches. Domestic and foreign psychology has a thoroughly presented phenomenological description of giftedness. At the same time, everything related to this complex and multifaceted phenomenon continues to cause controversy and raise new questions that researchers are trying to answer: theorists, experimenters, practitioners. Some issues can be considered resolved with a certain degree of conditionality, with respect to others, experts continue to express such different opinions that their debatable nature cannot be overcome.

Modern studies of the phenomenon of giftedness in psychological science are characterized by the absence of a unified categorical apparatus of theoretical, empirical and applied psychology of giftedness, common criteria for truth and empirical verifiability, the presence within the framework of theoretical psychology itself of various categorically incompatible approaches to the study of giftedness. The current state of research into the phenomenon of giftedness indicates that a research area formed in psychological science in which heterogeneous private scientific developments do not have only a single theoretical basis, but also methodological principles that contribute to scientific integration.

The existing approaches to the analysis of giftedness are extremely heterogeneous in content and methodological terms. The theoretical and methodological foundations for systematizing and coordinating these various approaches have not yet been developed. The absence of such foundations is a major scientific problem, the solution of which requires the study of the process of accumulation of theoretical and methodological premises of the psychological concept of giftedness throughout this process. The problematics of giftedness in both domestic and world psychological literature does not have a sufficiently clear outline, and the very concept of giftedness has not acquired clear parameters. The existing numerous definitions of giftedness do not always agree well with each other, since they are based on fundamentally different ideological, theoretical and methodological premises. In this situation, it is difficult to expect that numerous methodological developments aimed at practical work with the gifted will be able to unite in one direction and ensure the high efficiency of pedagogical work.

As noted earlier in a number of previous works of the authors [1,2,3], the main difficulty in studying the psychological concept of giftedness is associated with the heterogeneity of theoretical and methodological foundations and prerequisites, and the irreducibility of the accumulated facts to one level or a hierarchical system of levels of psychological reality. The knowledge accumulated by modern psychological science about giftedness does not represent a unified theory. The process of theorizing the psychological concept of giftedness is still far from complete. As part of the general array of this knowledge about giftedness, there are many theoretical constructions that are not always compatible with each other due to the discrepancy between the ontological, epistemological, axiological, socio-anthropological premises that make up the philosophical foundations of the psychological theory of giftedness.

## 3. CONCEPT AND THEORY AS A FORM OF KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION

At present, the system of psychological knowledge about giftedness exists in the form of a concept, i.e., such a system of organizing knowledge, which, unlike theory, does not claim absolute terminological rigor, logical consistency and completeness, reliability and validity of all its provisions. The evolution of the cultural-historical and theoretical-methodological prerequisites for the conceptualization of giftedness extends from Antiquity to the formation of modern psychology of giftedness as an independent section of psychological science with its own subject.

To understand the system of psychological knowledge about giftedness, currently formalized in the form of a concept, it is needed to develop basic methodological principles for the study of this concept, as well as a clear idea of what the concept is as a form of knowledge organization, what is its difference from other forms of knowledge organization primarily from theory. Concepts arise and develop within the framework of mental and practical activities.

In a developed, mature form, a concept is a form of organization of a system of scientific concepts about any subject, connected by primary explanatory schemes, which gives an idea of the essential connections of a selected fragment of objective reality. In the genetic aspect, the concept is the result of scientific and practical research of a certain fragment of reality, it is based on some learned types of activity of the subject of knowledge, philosophical and worldview prerequisites and a set of recognized facts.

The core of the concept, as a rule, is some basic idea in the form of a concept or a systematically organized set of concepts. The basic idea should unite and synthetically organize theoretical constructs (concepts), so that with its help it is possible not only to describe, but to understand, explain the objectively existing phenomenon displayed by means of this concept. In the logical and methodological aspect, a concept is a methodological scheme that allows using concepts in such a way that they constitute a system that makes it possible to make meaningful conclusions about any fragment of reality, allowing one to understand and explain the observed facts.

As a form of organization of knowledge, theory, in contrast to concept, claims to be a significantly higher level of logical organization, it is designed to give a holistic and internally consistent in the logical and methodological sense of the patterns and essential connections of a certain area of reality. If the main components of the concept are concepts, then for the theory, this role is played by concepts. Concepts can genetically precede a theory, constituting the basis for its formation, at the same time, they often coexist with a theory, interacting with it in the system of scientific knowledge. Separate components of the theory can be genetically related to different concepts, and thus the theory is based on a number of different concepts, and these concepts can logically contradict each other, but within the framework of the theory, contradictions are necessarily eliminated.

Internal consistency, or logical consistency, is an important criterion that distinguishes a concept from a theory. For theory, this criterion is of decisive importance. A theory that contains a logical contradiction is, in fact, refuted and, in order to be preserved, needs to eliminate the discovered contradiction. Meanwhile, for evaluating the concept, this criterion does not play such a decisive role.

Theory is the resulting product of scientific thought, the concept is a form of research and search activity that can proceed both in the form of a scientific and theoretical discourse, which in some cases may imply empirical verification (but not necessarily), and in the form of a free humanitarian discourse, consisting in producing a set of adjacent hypothetical constructions. If a concept at a certain stage of its development is transformed into a scientific theory, then the very process of such transformation acts as the theorizing of the concept, while the process of concept formation is the conceptualization of the corresponding ideas, ideas, values, and behavioral stereotypes. On this basis, it is necessary to separate the concept, on the one hand, from theory, and on the other hand, from the sum of non-conceptualized ideological elements that play the role of building material in relation to the concept. These elements can be present in almost all spheres of public life and manifest themselves in people's behavior.

Conceptualization is carried out in certain forms of social consciousness associated with scientific or philosophical discourse. Before the emergence of scientific psychology, the sphere of formation of the concept of giftedness could be such areas of public consciousness as philosophy and philosophical anthropology, medicine, pedagogy, religion, art, etc. The difference between a concept and a theory is that in addition to the basic functions of the concept, which are description and understanding, in the transition to theory, explanatory and scientific-prognostic functions are added. Explanation as a cognitive procedure is development of a system of provisions that describe a subject not only at phenomenological level, but also from the point of view of its essential ontological prerequisites, highlighting the types of objects characteristic of it, interactions, the structure of internal and external systemic connections, relationships and dependencies.

If we consider the reflection of the subject at the level of the concept, then with the desire for its widest coverage, there is a tendency to fix its understanding in all its variety of manifestations, and the generated knowledge has the status of the sum of hypotheses and does not claim to be theoretically reliable. It can also be noted that within the framework of the concept, the researcher seeks to understand the phenomenon being known, while within the framework of the theory, to the maximum objectivity of scientific results.

## 4. CLASSIFICATIONS OF THE THEORIES OF GIFTEDNESS

Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign theoretical works on the psychology of giftedness, it can be argued that a field of study has been formed in which heterogeneous private scientific developments do not have a single theoretical basis and principles that contribute to their integration. Based on this, for a more complete characterization of the formation of this field of knowledge, a strictly scientific analysis of its essence and problems, it is advisable to resort to the method of describing and comparing various theories of giftedness - classification - for a number of the following reasons.

First, in the psychology of giftedness, theories that are extremely heterogeneous in content and methodological terms are studied. If we consider all the variety of theories of giftedness available in psychological science as a kind of system, the task of their orderly description and explanation, i.e., classification, arises.

Secondly, a classification that focuses on identifying similarities and differences between the theories under study, searching for reliable ways to identify them, makes it possible to display the structure of the system under study, to identify patterns and trends in its development, which make it possible to predict the existence of still unknown theories of giftedness. In addition, the use of classification is a means of selecting and constructing, according to a number of criteria, from a set of theories of this type of theory of giftedness, which can be considered as a representative of this set. It should be borne in mind that the proposed classification is not final and may be further changed, supplemented or revised.

The effectiveness of the activities of a psychologist, a teacher in the development of the gifted most directly depends on the scientific elaboration of the programs and methods used. The validity of this position is confirmed not only by numerous studies, but also by specific facts of failures in working with the gifted. The importance of theoretical support and analysis of programs for gifted is recognized by almost all specialists. L.V. Popova writes in connection to this: “Theoretical models, built on a scientific basis, make it possible to clearly define the overall structure of the program, highlight the main elements to be monitored and evaluated. The essence of such programs is easier to explain to specialists of a different profile, parents, students themselves; they can be flexibly adjusted to changing conditions” ([4], pp. 12).

In the scientific literature, giftedness is characterized from a variety of sides, serving as the basis for various classifications. Moreover, to clarify the facts under discussion, it is needed to distinguish between the concepts of “trend”, “direction” and “approach”. Under trend we understand the line of movement or path of development of scientific research on giftedness, as well as the leading idea, the basis for understanding which is the dialectic of possibility and reality. In the study of the phenomenon of giftedness, there are a number of areas, or scientific trends, the selection of which is based on processing and generalization of data on the meaningful initial premises of scientists representing this trend, fixing stable features that manifest themselves in the interpretation of the essence of giftedness. If we shift emphasis towards methods or techniques for studying giftedness, then approaches to research should be considered.

The grounds for differentiating theories of giftedness are: the theories belong to the social or natural sciences, their location in the system of sciences, various methodological guidelines, attitudes towards various aspects of the study of giftedness, national-geographical and chronological features, mediation by purely scientific or random factors. The most common division of theoretical studies of giftedness is the theory of giftedness, which has developed in line with the social and natural sciences. It is justified to distinguish between the theories of giftedness, formed either in line with one branch of the social sciences, or at the junction of several areas of knowledge. Finally, it is possible to divide the existing theories of giftedness into those created within the framework of separate branches of psychological knowledge or at the intersection of them.

As one of the criteria for establishing differences in theories, there is an emphasis on indicators of giftedness, namely, on creativity, motivational and personal characteristics, and the conditions of the social environment of the gifted. Theories of giftedness created abroad are of different value, have varying degrees of acceptance and recognition by the scientific community, and their development is mediated by both purely scientific and random factors in relation to scientific research (interests and predilections of each researcher, local conditions, etc.)

The criterion for distinguishing theories of giftedness is the methodological prerequisites from which scientists proceed, which is manifested in the following approaches: systemic (structural-functional) and historical. When comparing the indicated approaches, it is obvious that there are many interweavings and the similarity of the general contours of even dissimilar theories of giftedness. On the one hand, this is an indirect confirmation of the objective nature of the general scientific understanding of giftedness, and, on the other hand, of the inevitable complexity of future research. In its structure, a theory differs from a concept in that, in a developed form, it can be represented in a deductive-axiomatic or hypothetical-deductive form; its foundations should ideally be proved up to the limit.

The concept does not necessarily claim to be exhaustive logical completeness, reliability and validity of all its provisions. Moreover, as already noted above, it may not even claim to be completely consistent, its individual elements may be in relation to contradiction, which does not interfere with its existence and further development, one of the directions of which is connected precisely with the elimination of detected contradictions. To introduce the foundations and premises of a concept, it may be sufficient to indicate the conclusions of the theories on which it is based.

A developed (mature) social theory should (ideally) have the following features [5]:

1. Reliance on facts, empirical verifiability. However, at the same time, one should not forget that a fact is an event established by a subject, whose view of the world is always based, explicitly or implicitly, on some concept, depending on which he can single out certain aspects of the whole variety of events, and consequently, facts [6].

2. The presence of primary explanatory schemes, united by the original theoretical constructs (categories). Primary explanatory schemes provide a synthesis of empirical data in the general semantic field of the theory.

3. The presence of a basic meaningful model of the reality under study, which includes the main idea of the theory, idealized theoretical objects, assumptions and hypotheses, which allow using certain logical and methodological schemes, regulations and techniques to build a scientific picture of the reality under study.

4. The presence of secondary interpretation schemes and additional theoretical constructs and constituents, i.e. applied models that are mutually consistent with each other and the main idea of the theory, as well as a logical and methodological mechanism (logic and methods of research and presentation) that provides certain methods and sequence of concept deployment in the form of a research program.

5. A set of statements and conclusions that are new in relation to other concepts and theories, including their deployment and justification (in logical and mathematical models - proof).

6. Partial formalization of the basic content model, which allows other researchers to constructively work with theoretical objects and conclusions without meaningfully recreating the entire concept with its premises.

None of these criteria is necessary for the concept, as well as the general criterion of scientific character, which for the theory is expressed in the fact that, on the one hand, its main provisions must correspond to the empirical basis that arises and is reproduced within the framework of certain forms of subject-practical activity, on the other hand, its provisions, conclusions and definitions of concepts should form a logically consistent system that has an empirical interpretation, including on a wider area of phenomena and processes than those that make up its original empirical basis. In the ideal case, scientific character is ensured by unity of the methodological concept underlying the methodological transitions within the concept. The eclecticism of the use of logical and methodological techniques and methods in the concept, as well as ontological and methodological foundations, can lead to outwardly plausible, but scientifically unreliable consequences and conclusions. Meanwhile, the concept at a certain stage of its development can be characterized by eclecticism, combining heterogeneous methodological, theoretical, and value orientations.

## 5. METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR STUDYING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONCEPT OF GIFTEDNESS

Since psychology belongs to the social type of sciences, a specific feature of psychological theories is. In particular, the expediency of introducing concepts using elements of the genetic method, taking into account the fact that psychological concepts arise on the basis of relevant concepts, which, in turn, are generated by certain sociocultural conditions and have a long history of formation within the concepts. From this follows the principle of distinguishing the concept and theory as forms of development of knowledge, as well as the principle of the unity of the historical and conceptual-logical approaches in the study of giftedness. The concept of giftedness will be considered in its development, since a concept is something that is becoming, in contrast to a theory, which is a certain result, a product of the logical and methodological formulation of an internally agreed amount of scientific knowledge. The concept has its roots in social practice and the cultural environment, it grows on the basis of a value-worldview paradigm that reflects a certain state of society and manifests itself in a variety of ways in the material and spiritual life of people. Values recognized in society, stable social practices and customs, people's beliefs are all manifestations of the value-worldview paradigm, on the basis of which concepts arise, expressed in the form of myths, philosophical teachings, literary texts, folklore and other stable symbolic forms, the highest of which are scientific theories.

Theory is the goal and end result of the development of the concept. Final, not in the sense of completing the process, but of achieving a qualitatively new state and transition to a new phase of development on strictly scientific principles. This substantiates the accepted principle of paradigm study of the process of formation of the concept of giftedness, or paradigm approach. It consists in the fact that when describing each stage of this process, its connection with the living conditions of people, the conditionality of the value-worldview paradigm characteristic of the corresponding society is revealed. In this sense, the process of formation and development of the concept of giftedness can be represented as a process of successive paradigm shifts, each of which has a socio-cultural conditionality. Each paradigm sets ontological conditionality of a certain state and content of the concept of giftedness. This ontological conditioning receives epistemological refraction in those forms of philosophical and scientific reflection that are characteristic of the respective culture and within which the conceptualization of the initial semantic elements takes place. The result of conceptualization is a concept as an ideological formation, which, unlike a scientific theory, has a transcendental, super-experimental dimension not requiring empirical verification, but at the same time, if the necessary conditions are present, it can develop into a scientific theory. This implies the principle of dialectical unity of ontological, epistemological and transcendental aspects of the study of the process of formation and development of the concept of giftedness.

To deepen the general scientific understanding of the problem of giftedness, it is of great importance to integrate psychological and pedagogical research with philosophy and other related sciences: sociology, ethnography, linguistics, ethics, etc. With all the differences in the specific interpretation of abilities in a fairly wide scientific field, they were recognized as necessary object studies of these sciences, which brought many valuable and important results. Philosophers, sociologists and historians paid much attention to the consideration of questions about the role of the biological and the social, about the significance of the individual and the crowd (individual and social) in history. Linguists have brought to the fore the consideration of speech abilities as a means of communicating people and transmitting information. The study of the nature of abilities, individual and age characteristics of their development, individual differences, conditions and prerequisites for the formation of abilities, gender individual differences in inclinations and abilities, features of higher human abilities, and much more was given attention in the complex of psychological and related sciences to psychology (social and pedagogical psychology). ethnopsychology, psychophysiology, management psychology, etc.). Thus, as the next methodological principle, we single out the principle of integrativity.

Among the trends in the development of research on giftedness, the main one is the trend of integrative synthesis of data from several sciences. Until now, the movement of research in different sciences involved in the construction of theories of giftedness has been fragmented and parallel, they have come into contact fragmentarily. Currently, researchers are clearly aware of the need for a holistic analysis of giftedness, identifying its sociocultural determinants. Attempts are being made to conduct a comprehensive, interdisciplinary scientific study of giftedness, the diversity of forms of its real existence and manifestation, while using the whole range of approaches and methods developed by various scientific disciplines (psychophysiology, differential psychology, social psychology, general psychology, psychodiagnostics, practical psychology, etc.).

One example of this is the study by V.D. Shadrikov [7], who developed an original concept of abilities and giftedness based on the analysis and generalization of the works of the classics of Russian psychology: L.S. Vygotsky (development of higher mental functions), P.K. Anokhin (physiology of functional systems), B.G. Anan'eva (functional and operational mechanisms of perceptual processes), A.R. Luria (foundations of neuropsychology). Formulating further prospects for research, Shadrikov rightly notes its complexity at the level of studying the patterns of integration and adaptation of individual abilities to the objective world, the requirements of activity.

An earlier attempt to integrate data from various schools and trends in the scientific understanding of giftedness was made by E.A. Golubeva and employees of her laboratory [8], who tried to meaningfully combine the methods of differential psychophysiology and differential psychology, to integrate natural and social, generalizing the categories of “personality”, “individual” and “organism” in the experimental study of abilities.

Analysis of the theory and methodology of research on giftedness leads to the fact that in the area of interest the systemic (previously it was preceded by the name “structural-functional”) and historical approaches are actively used. A systematic approach implies a holistic and multidimensional coverage of the phenomena being studied, which is implemented in variously oriented studies (general psychological, psychophysiological, socio-psychological, etc.). In the context of such a holistic and multi-level system, which appears to be giftedness, data on the individual aspects of this phenomenon are revealed in a new way, and their systemic qualities come into play. For example, a study of giftedness by the staff of the laboratory of the psychology of giftedness under the leadership of A.M. Matyushkin [9]. The structural-functional approach was presented by N.A. Aminov [10], who studied giftedness as a structurally dissected integrity, where each element of the structure has a specific functional purpose. The main problem, in his opinion, is the study of a set of stable connections and relationships that ensure the preservation of the basic properties of giftedness under various external and internal changes.

A characteristic feature of several scientific studies of giftedness is the merging of structural and historical research, which cannot be separated from each other by a fundamental barrier. It is this nature of the organic relationship of several approaches (systemic and historical) that Shadrikov's study has, in which ontological consideration of the problem is preceded by a presentation of the main traditions of studying abilities and giftedness in a historical perspective.

As K.J. Gergen mentioned above notes: “commitment to value is an almost inevitable by-product of social existence, and, being members of society, we are not able to isolate ourselves from them, even pursuing professional goals” ([11], pp. 317). This is especially true in relation to the study of such mental phenomena, the isolation itself, the constitution of which bears an axiological imprint. But one of these mental phenomena is giftedness. The psychological interpretation of giftedness not only forms the basis of the pedagogical paradigm, but also becomes one of the most important value orientations of culture. The importance of this fact is connected with the dual position of psychology as an empirical science and, at the same time, an ideological one. Being a worldview science, psychology actively participates in the formation of a person's picture of the world, the system of his value attitudes and, ultimately, behavior. Being an empirical science, it is aimed at reflecting the objective characteristics of human behavior.

In the conditions of the modern information society, psychological knowledge is becoming widespread, and this is especially true of psychological theories related to the explanation of value-laden phenomena, including the concept of giftedness. But the more open psychological knowledge is, less chance remains for scientists to find a valid way to test this knowledge. This implies the principle of axiological and theoretical validity. The essence of the principle of axiological consistency is that theoretical hypotheses put forward must undergo axiological verification by clarifying their worldview and value prerequisites and implications. The meaning of the principle of theoretical consistency is connected to the recognition of the fact that, due to above reasons, an experiment cannot serve as the final criterion for the truth of a theoretical hypothesis, and therefore its results must be subjected to additional verification. Thus, along with empirical, experimental verification, a theoretical hypothesis must be tested by theoretical analysis.

## 6. CONCLUSION

The current approaches to the analysis of giftedness in psychology are heterogeneous in content and methodological terms. The knowledge accumulated by modern psychological science about giftedness does not represent a unified theory. The system of psychological knowledge about giftedness is organized in the form of a concept. The concept is such a system of knowledge organization, which, unlike the theory, does not claim absolute terminological rigor, logical consistency and completeness, reliability and validity of all its provisions. To understand the system of psychological knowledge about giftedness, organized in the form of a concept, it is necessary to develop the basic methodological principles for studying this concept.

As the main methodological principles of the study of the psychological concept of giftedness, a number of principles stand out: the principle of distinguishing the concept and theory as forms of development of scientific knowledge; the principle of unity of historical and conceptual-logical approaches in the study of the concept of giftedness; the principle of distinguishing the ontological, epistemological and transcendental aspects of the study of the process of formation of the concept of giftedness; the principle of integration; the principle of social responsibility; the principle of axiological and theoretical consistency.

## AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTION

Vladimir Inozemtsev: Made a significant contribution to the design and development of the study design; Participated in writing and editing a draft version of the article; Approved the final version of the article for publication; Agreed to be responsible for all aspects of the study that may raise questions related to its accuracy, integrity and credibility.

Vitaly Ivlev: Made a significant contribution to the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; Participated in writing a draft version of the article; Approved the final version of the article for publication; Agreed to be responsible for all aspects of the study that may raise questions related to its accuracy, integrity and credibility.

Nonna Bagramyants: Made a significant contribution to the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; Participated in editing a draft version of the article; Approved the final version of the article for publication; Agreed to be responsible for all aspects of the study that may raise questions related to its accuracy, integrity and credibility.

Marina Ivleva: Made a significant contribution to the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; Participated in writing a draft version of the article; Approved the final version of the article for publication; Agreed to be responsible for all aspects of the study that may raise questions related to its accuracy, integrity and credibility.

## ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Fund: The study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) in the framework of the scientific research project “An Innovative Environment for the Development of Gifted Students of a Technical University in the Context of Digitalization”. Project No. 20-013-00477.

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M.L. Ivleva, V.A. Inozemtsev, V.Yu. Ivlev. Theoretical and Methodological Study of the Psychological Concept of Giftedness as a Form of Scientific Knowledge. Humanitarian Bulletin, 2020: 1–16.
L.V. Popova. Modern Approaches to the Definition of What Is Giftedness. School of Health, 1995(1): 3–18.
B.C. Stepin. Philosophy of Science: Common Problems. Moscow: Gardariki, 2006.
L. Fleck. The Emergence and Development of Scientific Fact. Moscow: Idea Press, 1999.
V.D. Shadrikov. Human Abilities. Moscow / Voronezh: Institute of Practical Psychology / NPO “MODEK”, 1997.
E.A. Golubeva. Ability and Personality. Moscow: Prometheus, 1993.
A.M. Matyushkin. Giftedness Mysteries: Problems of Practical Diagnostics. Moscow: Shkola Press, 1993.
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TY  - CONF
AU  - Vitaly Yu. Ivlev
AU  - Nonna L. Bagramyants
AU  - Marina L. Ivleva
PY  - 2023
DA  - 2023/03/14
TI  - The Psychological Concept of Giftedness as a Form of Knowledge Organization and Methodological Principles of Its Study in the Context of the Modern Educational Situation
BT  - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Education Studies: Experience and Innovation (ICESEI 2022)
PB  - Athena Publishing
SP  - 1
EP  - 9
SN  - 2949-8937
UR  - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.230306.001
DO  - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.230306.001
ID  - Inozemtsev2023
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