In China, because the military was well resourced in the past, the large number of high school students and young people of equivalent academic ability already met the demand for conscription at the time. Therefore, for a long time only a very small number of students from Chinese universities were conscripted as officers or civilian cadres, and the majority of students did not serve in the military. However, the development of education and the expansion of universities in China has led to a decline in the number of high school graduates being drafted, which has brought about a certain impact on the recruitment process; at the same time, university students generally have a strong sense of patriotism, and many have the ambition to join the army and serve their country. After entering the 21st century, technology is changing rapidly and modern warfare is high-tech and long-distance combat, the use of modern weapons by soldiers with a high school education or below is far from being able to meet the needs of the times. As China's military modernization process accelerates, a large number of new weapons and equipment require both high-level military personnel and highly educated military personnel to operate and maintain them. Therefore, university enrolment is of great benefit in promoting the modernization of national defense. The wider knowledge of university students and their quicker and deeper absorption of military knowledge and skills are of great practical significance in accelerating the strengthening of the military through science and technology, consolidating and improving combat effectiveness and following the path of the elite soldier.
2. SUBJECTS, CONTENTS AND METHODS OF THE SURVEY
Survey subjects: Undergraduate students from the College of Economics, Shandong Institute of Technology and Business, from the economics major.
Survey content: The degree of college students' understanding of the conscription policy, their concern about joining the army, their willingness to join the army, and their motivation to join the army.
Survey method: Due to the current epidemic, an online anonymous questionnaire was used.
3. SURVEY ON THE WILLINGNESS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS TO ENLIST IN THE ARMY
In this article, a survey study was conducted on undergraduate students in the College of Economics, Shandong Institute of Technology and Business. 209 valid questionnaires were returned. Among the 209 undergraduate students who participated in this study, 36.84% were male and 63.16% were female; 36.36% were only children and 63.64% were non-only children; 69.86% were registered in rural areas and 30.14% in urban areas; 31.10% were party members (reserve party members), 64.11% were league members and 4.78% were masses in terms of political affiliation.
The study found that most students were not very concerned about joining the military: 16.27% were very concerned, 77.03% were occasionally concerned; 96.65% had a good impression of a military career; the majority of students liked military work: 40.67% were very interested in military work, 40.67% were more interested; most students had an average understanding of conscription The majority of students have a general understanding of the military recruitment policy: 3.83% know it very well, 27.27% know it relatively well, 51.67% know it generally, and 17.22% do not know it; students' willingness to enlist: 24.40% have the will to enlist, 40.67% are not sure, and 34.93% have no will to enlist. The majority of students are not strong enough to join the army. Among the motivations for joining the army, “to train and improve oneself”, “to protect the country” and “to aspire to military life” accounted for the highest percentage. Of the reasons for not wanting to join the army, 60.27% were due to physical problems, 31.51% did not want to join the army and 21.92% were due to hard training. Also, when asked “Did you ever want to join the army while you were at university?” 51.20% of the students answered that they did not want to join the army, which shows that the students are not enthusiastic enough to join the army.
4. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE WILLINGNESS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS TO JOIN THE ARMY
4.1. Male Students Are More Willing to Join the Army Than Female Students
From the 209 valid questionnaires returned, 36.84% of male students and 63.16% of female students, a cross-tabulation analysis of “gender” and “whether they have the intention to join the army” shows that: among male students, 35.06% have a clear intention to join the army, 42.86% have an unclear attitude towards joining the army, and 22.08% have a clear unwillingness to join the army. In the group of female students, 18.18% have clear intention to join the army, 39.39% of them have unclear attitude to join the army, and 42.42% of them are clearly unwilling to join the army. As for joining the army during university, 63.64% of male students have considered joining the army, while in the female group, only 40.15% of female students have considered joining the army, and more than half of female students have never considered joining the army.
In this study, the main reasons for female students not wanting to join the army are physical, accounting for 58.93%, physical quality is not up to standard and cannot withstand the high intensity training; meanwhile, strict age limit, quota restriction and medical examination requirement are all factors that affect female students' willingness to join the army.
4.2. Students With Rural Residences Are More Willing to Join the Army Than Those With Urban Residences
In this study, a cross-tabulation analysis of “household registration” and “whether they have the intention to join the army” shows that 27.40% of the students with rural household registration have a clear intention to join the army, 36.30% have an unclear attitude towards joining the army and 36.30% have an unclear attitude towards joining the army. It is obvious that children from rural families are more willing to enlist than children from urban families.
The vast majority of students with urban household registration join the army for the purpose of training themselves and defending their country, while for students with rural household registration, their motives for joining the army are more diverse, both for training themselves and defending their country, as well as for relieving the financial pressure on their families, as the income of rural families is generally on the low side and their work field is also narrower, so joining the army can help them relieve part of their tuition and Since rural families generally have a low income and a narrow field of work, joining the army can help them to alleviate part of their tuition and living expenses, and broaden their employment opportunities, expand their personal development space, and receive a certain allowance to reduce the family's financial burden and improve their social status. In addition, influenced by their family environment, rural university students have a greater sense of autonomy and better qualities of hardship and hard work, making them more suitable for teaching and exercising in the military .
4.3. Only-Child University Students Are More Willing to Join the Army Than Non-Only Children
In this article, the cross-tabulation analysis between “whether they are only children” and “whether they have the intention to join the military” shows that 27.63% of the only children group have a clear intention to join the military, 39.47% have an unclear attitude towards joining the military, and 32.89% have a clear intention not to join the military. In the group of non-only children, 22.56% of students have a clear intention to join the army, 41.35% of students have an unclear attitude towards joining the army, and 36.09% of students are clearly unwilling to join the army. It can be seen that university students who are only children have a stronger intention to enlist than those who are not only children.
In the recruitment process, most of the only children are urban and most of the non-only children are rural . Therefore, for only children, they are used to CS and other shooting games, and they often see big military dramas like “Soldier Assault”, and they always have a longing for military life in their hearts, which is why they are more willing to join the army; while for non-only children, due to their financial situation and educational resources, their main attention is focused on cultural subjects. For non-only children, due to their financial situation and educational resources, their main focus is on their cultural studies and less on content not related to the cultural curriculum. Their goal is to achieve self-worth in the world, not to make a contribution in the army.
4.4. Family and Friends' Experience in the Military Affects the Willingness of Students to Be Recruited
In this study, a cross-tabulation analysis of “whether there are relatives and friends around to join the army” and “whether they have the intention to join the army” shows that 44.44% of college students have more than 5 relatives and friends around to join the army, 38.10% have 3-5 relatives and friends around to join the army, 29.29% have 1-2 relatives and friends around to join the army, and 12.29% have no relatives and friends around to join the army. The percentage of college students who are willing to enlist is 44.44%, 38.10% for those who have 3-5 relatives and friends, 29.29% for those who have 1-2 relatives and friends, and 12.5% for those who have no relatives around them.
By analyzing the correlation between the military experience of relatives and friends and the willingness to join the army, it can be seen that there is a positive correlation between the military experience of relatives and friends and the willingness of college students to join the army, that is, the stronger the willingness of college students to join the army if their relatives and friends have military experience, and the less positive the willingness of college students to join the army if their relatives and friends do not have military experience. The more friends and relatives who have joined the military, the more students like the military career and the more they know about the military recruitment policy.
4.5. Degree of Understanding of Conscription Policies Affects the Willingness of University Students to Enlist
In this study, a cross-tabulation analysis of “knowledge of conscription policy” and “willingness to join the army” shows that 62.50% of students who know a lot about conscription policy are willing to join the army, 38.60% of students who know a lot about conscription policy are willing to join the army, and 18.52% of students who know little about conscription policy are willing to join the army. The percentage of students who knew the conscription policy to an average degree was 18.52%, and the percentage of students who did not know the conscription policy was 11.11%.
By analyzing the correlation between the degree of understanding of conscription policies and the willingness of university students to enlist, it can be seen that the more detailed students understand the conscription policies, the higher their willingness to enlist in the army, accounting for 62.50%, while students who do not understand the conscription policies have a lower willingness to enlist in the army, accounting for 11.11%. The main reason for the low intention of many university students to join the army is that they do not understand the relevant policy regulations and have worries about their future studies and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the education of university students on conscription and adopt more diversified means of propaganda, so that university students can establish the correct motivation and concept of joining the army on the basis of a full understanding of the conscription policy, so that they can get rid of their worries and better join the army and make It is necessary to make students free from worries and better join the army, so that their will can be honed and their personal interests can be combined with the interests of the country.
4.6. Political Appearance Affects College Students' Willingness to Join the Army
The percentage of students with political affiliation of the masses was 4.78%, out of a total of 209 students, only 10 were masses, which had less influence on students' willingness to enlist. In this article, by analyzing structure's strain political affiliation with “whether or not they have the intention to join the army” and find that 15.38% of the students who are members of the Communist Party of China (reserve members) have a clear intention to join the army, while 46.15% of the students have an unclear attitude towards joining the army. In the group of Communist Youth League members, 28.36% of students had a clear intention to join the army, 37.31% had an unclear attitude towards joining the army, and 34.33% had a clear unwillingness to join the army.
The ideological consciousness of student party members should be higher than that of the league members, and they should be more willing to work for the country, the society and the people, and should be more willing to join the army, but the findings of this article are contrary to the reality. By analyzing the reasons why students are reluctant to join the army, it has been found that 64% of students are reluctant to join the army because of physical reasons, and 20% of students are reluctant to join the army because the training is too hard; by analyzing the reasons why students' attitude towards joining the army is not clear, it has been found that 80% of students' attitude towards joining the army is not clear because of physical reasons. Therefore, universities should increase the daily physical exercise of students to improve the physical quality of college students. At the same time, 209 valid questionnaires were returned in this article, the number of questionnaires is small, and the number of students with the status of party members (reserve party members) is even smaller, accounting for only 31.1%, most of them are league members, so there may be some bias in the survey results. However, from the perspective of the whole society, university students will receive more patriotism education, collectivism education, etc. in the process of changing their status from mass to league member to party member, and as their ideological awareness continues to improve and their patriotism ideology continues to strengthen, their willingness to join the army is also increasing.
5. SUGGESTIONS FOR PROMOTING STUDENTS TO JOIN THE ARMY
5.1. Increasing Recruitment Publicity
Colleges and universities should step up their efforts to educate university students about military enlistment and conscription, so that the majority of students have a comprehensive understanding of the relevant aspects, which is conducive to promoting our country's conscription efforts. Firstly, various media should be fully used such as the school's official website and WeChat public number to carry out focused propaganda, including the meaning of enlistment, enlistment policy and discharge placement, etc. Secondly, when the recruitment is carried out in colleges and universities, more students should be made aware of the daily routine of the army, and active-duty college students or those who have already retired from the army can be invited to give lectures and tell college students about the daily routine of the army with their personal experience, so that more students will have a better understanding of joining the army Thirdly, the career planning education should be strengthen for students who have joined the army, in order to clarify the direction of their development after serving in the army and to help eliminate their worries. Lastly, institutions of higher education should strengthen the training of students' military qualities and hold regular training on military knowledge. In short, students should have a deep understanding of conscription, establish the right ideology and motivation, fully understand that being a soldier is of great practical significance in speeding up national defense construction, strengthening national security and improving the quality of the army, and enhance students' sense of responsibility and mission so that they truly accept joining the army from the bottom of their hearts.
5.2. Strengthening the Ideological Education Work of University Students
Universities should increase the ideological education of university students, strengthen the cultivation of a correct outlook on life, values and worldview, and help them form correct value orientations. Actively organize university students to participate in voluntary activities and public welfare activities, get out of school, understand society and serve society. In the process of practice, university students are made to take responsibility for others, the collective and society, and through the pride and sense of mission that comes from taking responsibility, they constantly enhance their own sense of responsibility. The stronger the sense of responsibility of university students, the stronger their willingness to join the army. However, in reality, the lack of a sense of responsibility is common in universities . Therefore, students should take initiative to develop their own sense of responsibility, starting with small things in their daily lives, helping others as much as possible and taking the initiative to cooperate with the team. Only in this way can you grow up to be a responsible and highly qualified university student.
5.3. Implementing Preferential Policies to Eliminate the Worries of Students
In the survey of this article, 30.62% of students were reluctant to join the army because they were afraid of delaying their studies or their future jobs. In recent years, China has formulated a series of preferential policies to support university students to enlist in the army, including retaining their academic status, reducing tuition fees, and giving extra points for examinations and public examinations. Through this series of preferential policies, a large number of college students with good character and quality have been recruited into the army. However, some retired university students have difficulties in completing their studies after returning to school, certain policies are not implemented or they are not satisfied with the implementation of the policies, etc. To solve the above problems, universities should strengthen and implement various recruitment policies, effectively guarantee the treatment of retired university students, ensure the implementation of various tasks, and reassure university soldiers. At the same time, for those who have difficulties in their studies, student counseling activities such as “one-to-one counseling” and the establishment of a study exchange platform can be used to provide study guidance for retired university students so that they can successfully complete their studies and start a new life.
5.4. Full Attention and Precise Counseling
In this study, the main reasons why university students are reluctant to join the army or have unclear attitudes towards joining the army are “physical reasons”, “training is too hard” and “fear of delaying future studies or work”. The reasons for this are that in the university the study atmosphere is strong and the management is relatively relaxed, so students have less daily exercise, which is not comparable to the military. The two-year break from school has disconnected university students' knowledge systems and changed their learning abilities, and they will have some difficulties in continuing their studies when they return to school. At the same time, when they return to school from the military, their peers are seniors or have graduated, they will feel that the campus environment has become unfamiliar and that their daily routine will have changed significantly. Therefore, schools should strengthen their ties with serving university students, coordinate with the army to provide them with proper psychological counseling, and hire professional counsellors to conduct psychological assessments and psychological counseling to analyze the psychological problems of university soldiers. At the same time, they should provide academic guidance and planning to current university students so that they can feel that although they are in military service, their campus is still their strongest backing, so that they can feel the warmth of a family, complete their military career with determination and happily complete each step of their life plan.
5.5. Reliance on Parents to Carry Forward the Fine Tradition of Patriotism and Support for the Military
In today's rapidly developing Chinese economy, the mindset of both university students and their parents is changing. The parents of university students have come out of hardship and they have seen first-hand the prosperity and strength of their country. As people's material conditions become better and better, parents are doting on their children, so their parents' plans for their children's future have become a key factor in their future. They are afraid that their children will suffer by going to the army, that joining the army for two years will affect their studies, that they will not learn anything after they arrive, that the preferential policies for conscription will not be implemented, etc. Few people believe that being a soldier is a responsibility that all young people of military age should fulfil, and some parents even call the army to stop their children from joining the army. Therefore, under the current situation, it is an urgent task to realize that all people are concerned about national defense, support it and build it. Conscription units at all levels should take conscription work as a carrier, strengthen the publicity of national defense laws and regulations, and vigorously create a strong atmosphere for supporting the army, so that the general public's support for the army always keeps pace with the modernization of national defense and the army. In peacetime, the best way to support the military is to support your children to join the army and serve your country.
Cite This Article
TY - CONF AU - Peng Zhang PY - 2023 DA - 2023/03/14 TI - Study on the Current Situation of University Students Joining the Army in the New Era: Taking Shandong Business and Technology University as an Example BT - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Education Studies: Experience and Innovation (ICESEI 2022) PB - Athena Publishing SP - 39 EP - 44 SN - 2949-8937 UR - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.230306.007 DO - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.230306.007 ID - Zhang2023 ER -