According to data from the Ministry of Education, the number of college graduates in 2021 is 9.09 million, an increase of 350,000 year-on-year; the number of college graduates in 2022 is expected to be 10.76 million, an increase of 1.67 million year-on-year. Both the scale and the increment hit a record high, and the employment situation is grim . On 17 May 2022, when Premier Li Keqiang visited Yunnan University, he emphasized that youth is China's future and youth employment must be stable. The state attaches great importance to and cares about current employment of college graduates. Yunnan Province also took a series of measures to “promote graduate employment”. However, considering employment issues before graduation is very passive. This study randomly selected physical education, social sports guidance and the 2019 and 2020 undergraduates majoring in management and sports dance as research objects to explore how the “special skills of sports students” can achieve the ultimate ideal employment through talent training, in order to provide reference for training and employment of sports students.
2. RESEARCH OBJECTS
This study took the special skills of students majoring in physical education as the research object, and randomly selected 200 undergraduates from the 2019 and 2020 classes of the three majors of physical education, sports dance, and social sports guidance and management in the School of Physical Education of Yunnan Normal University for research.
3. EMPLOYMENT OVERVIEW OF THE SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR THE CLASS OF 2021
Statistics show that the initial employment rate of the 2021 sports graduates of Yunnan Normal University is 95.52% for sports training, 86.11% for ethnic traditions and martial arts, 80.47% for physical education, and 69.91% for the comprehensive rate of the four classes of social sports guidance and management major. It can be seen that the employment rate of sports majors in Yunnan Normal University has dropped significantly compared with previous years (the initial employment rate is basically above 90.0%). Among several majors, the sports training major has a better employment rate. It is related to the fact that most of the sports training majors are high-level athletes, and it is also related to the condition that many units require “second-level and above athlete level” when they are employed.
Although in the field of education, the requirements of education and teaching level should be put in the first place, and high-level athletes are not necessary, but when many schools are evaluating, assessing, and entering higher-quality development evaluation, the evaluation indicators will be unnaturally close to the index of high-level athletes . From this point of view, improving the level of students' sports is not only a need for school development, but also a very important condition for students' employment, and it is also an important part of improving teaching skills . Therefore, it is of great significance to study the improvement of students' sports specific skills to improve the employment rate of students.
4. RESEARCH RESULTS: THE SITUATION OF SPECIAL SKILLS TRAINING OF STUDENTS MAJORING IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN YUNNAN NORMAL UNIVERSITY
4.1. Distribution of Majors and Specialties of the School of Physical Education in Yunnan Normal University
The College of Physical Education currently has 7 majors. Among the 3 majors surveyed, there are more ball games (65.0%) and gymnastics (20.0%), while swimming and martial arts are less (Table 1).
|Special||Frequency||Effective Percentage (%)|
|Remarks: 4 students majoring in social and physical education currently have no special skills to study, but mainly focus on culture, accounting for 2.0%.|
Special selection of students of 3 majors (n=200).
4.2. Special Employment Preparation for Sports Students
4.2.1. Cognition of “Special Skills and Employment Correlation”
According to the data in Table 2, a small number of students (4.0%) believe that they do not want to be employed in the sports field and tend to be employed across other professional fields. Through in-depth interviews, it was learned that these students have clear plans for the future, and have clear plans and arrangements for employment in related fields, such as “intention to study in foreign countries and areas”, “have already found a corresponding job before studying in college, or because of their own and family reasons”. Therefore, these students believe that the purpose of learning special skills is to increase the quality of life and comprehensive literacy, and there is no particularly strong connection with their employment in the sports industry.
The majority of students have poor specialized skills (44.5%) or acceptable specialized skills (44.0%), and these students are generally worried about their employment prospects. While seeking a smooth graduation, some students also want to master more motor skills. It shows that this part of the students' awareness of the relationship between special skills and employment is still considerable. Among the students with acceptable specialties (44.0%), the employment correlation is relatively high, and they believe that learning more skills will ensure employment. 7.5% of students have a fairly high level of specialized skills, and some of these students are quite confident in their employability. Considering the current conditions for the recruitment of physical education teachers in primary and secondary schools, some schools are relatively utilitarian when recruiting talents . When recruiting, they require students to have a second-level athlete certificate, a referee grade certificate, a coach certificate, etc. . Therefore, the level of sports skills is relatively high. On the basis of high level, it is a great advantage to have a more comprehensive grasp of the level of sports in the employment process. After all, under high pressure of competing with the same major and other majors, the situation faced by students is still relatively difficult.
|Cognition of “Special Skills and Employment Relationship”||Frequency||Percentage (%)|
|① The quality of the special project has no effect on my employment. The reason is: I don't want to work in the sports field.||8||4.0|
|② The special skills are not outstanding, and the employment prospects are worrisome. Just try my best to get the graduation certificate; I don't want to put too much effort into practicing other sports skills, just get a diploma first, and get a job at will; try to learn as many sports skills as possible, which may be good for employment||89||44 .5|
|③ Specialty is acceptable. If I learn some other sports-specific skills, my employment will be more secure.||88||44.0|
|④ The specialty is quite prominent, and I can get a job based on it. It doesn't matter whether I learn other sports skills; if I learn some other sports special skills, the employment will be more secure.||15||7.5|
Students' cognition of “special skills and employment relationship” (n=200).
4.2.2. Preparation for Future Employment
It can be seen in Table 3 that it is found that sports majors generally make more efforts to “seek for the future and employment”, and the number of people who meet the minimum conditions in the five categories given exceeds 90.0%. It can be seen that students' awareness of transforming employment pressure into learning motivation is relatively high. Most of the students (97.0%) chose to “work hard on the specific skills they are currently learning”. Generally speaking, the current students majoring in physical education have a tendency to improve their competitiveness in terms of awareness and action, actively carry out positive efforts, deeply cultivate their own special skills fields, and continuously enhance their own capabilities.
|Situation Description||Selected Number||Percentage (%)|
|Working hard on the specific skills you have learned so far||194||97.0|
|Setting aside dedicated time to develop other specialized skills||188||94.0|
|Preparing for various referee certificates and qualification certificate exams||187||93.5|
|Actively seeking opportunities for social practice, and improving information mastery, application ability and social adaptability||183||91.5|
|Participating in various competitions during the university to enrich oneself, constantly internalizing and improving the comprehensive quality||181||90.5|
Physical education students' preparation for future employment (n=200, multiple choices).
4.2.3. Self-Assessment of Special Sports Skills for Students Majoring in Physical Education
According to Table 4, it can be seen that only 4.0% of the students have an excellent level of special sports; 67.5% of the students are of average level or only participate in school competitions; 6.5% of the students have no practical understanding of the special sports. Judging from the proportion of the current grade level gradient of undergraduates, the talent training of the School of Physical Education in Normal University is practical and in line with the logic of the training system. However, most students do not have outstanding special skills and are not very well prepared for employment, which will be detrimental to the overall employment competition. In sports majors, although special skills are not the only criteria for recruiting units to measure talents, they are also a very high standard and are relatively core employment preparation .
|Can participate in official competitions, but the level is average||98||49.0|
|Can participate in school-level professional competitions or assume a fixed role in the competition to implement tactics||37||18.5|
|Interested, occasionally participate in the competition, do more entertainment and supplements in life||23||11.5|
|Entertain oneself and use it for fitness||21||10.5|
|The technical movements are very good and can participate in professional competitions||8||4.0|
|Only stay at the level of theory, consciousness, and test scores, and there is a little impression in the mind||6||3.0|
Students' self-assessment of personal special skills (n=200).
4.2.4. Students Majoring in Physical Education Hope That the School Will Help Them in Terms of Employment
It can be seen in Table 5 that after multiple responses to the ranking questions through SPSS, students hope that the school will help them. From the perspective of importance for the students, “sports skills training, improving skills level, and increasing employment opportunities” accounted for the largest proportion (61.2%). In the first three situations described (i.e. options A, B & C), they are all more important. It is worth mentioning that students do not pay as much attention to skills training as the other two. The main reason is that since the teacher qualification certificate examination, students have been divided to a certain extent based on their own self-judgment of their ability to obtain primary, middle and elementary teacher qualification certificates.
Overall, 68.5% of the students chose all five options. Physical education students still hope to supplement their professional skills. On this basis, other special skills also need to be supplemented and developed, and they should be widely contacted and mastered as much as possible. Teachers and leaders of the college can use the above five categories as a reference, earnestly consider the needs of students, guide students to develop in an all-round way, and realize the cultivation of one specialty and multiple abilities.
5.1. Revising the “Talent Training Plan” With Special Skills as the Core, and Doing Well in Top-Level Design
The era of “extensive” development in the past has come to an end, and various industries in the future are developing in the direction of “refinement and specialization”. Therefore, it is necessary for the college to revise the “talent training plan” with special skills as the core to improve employability. The top-level design should be done in multiple dimensions such as employment cognition, curriculum setting, training process, and promotion path.
5.2. Doing a Good Job of “Demand Mining & Guidance” for Special Skills Learning According to the Employment Situation
Future employment must be “diversified” to meet people's growing needs for fitness, health and exercise. People of different ages have different needs for sports. Therefore, in the process of cultivating sports talents, adjustments will be made accordingly. At the same time, there is a focus on making all-round adjustments to meet the needs of the population.
|1st pick (n=194)||120 (61.2%)▲||23||18||22||11|
|2nd pick (n=184)||34||70 (38.0%)▲||27||33||20|
|3rd pick (n=174)||12||29||50 (28.7%)▲||48||35|
|4th pick (n=151)||13||34||40 (26.4%)▲||37||27|
|5th pick (n=137)||8||14||22||27||66 (48.2%)▲|
① A: Sports skills training, improving skills level and increasing employment opportunities.
B: Strengthening employment training for enterprises and institutions, special post teachers, civil servants, etc.
C: In-depth study of various employment policies (Western Plan, three branches and one support, conscription, postgraduate policies, etc.).
D: Training of students' teaching skills by grades (freshman, second, third, and fourth).
E: Inviting “recruitment experts to the campus”, holding simulated recruitment with high degree of professional relevance, passing application requirements to students, and grasping employment trends.
② Data marked with ▲ represents the item with the most choices by the students in this rank.
③ Between brackets is the proportion of the situation in the rank. For example, in the case of 194 students in the first rank, the description A has 120 students choosing it, accounting for 61.2%.
Employment assistance that students want from the school (n=200, ranking).
5.3. Establishing a Mechanism to Improve Employability in Combination With the Implementation of the “New Curriculum Standards” of September 2022 Edition
The third round of “New Curriculum Standards” promulgated in 2022 puts forward the requirements of “core literacy” for future talents. The training and growth of sports talents requires a feasible “core literacy” improvement mechanism. Physical education students have dual roles. Identity, on the one hand, it is necessary to improve the technical level of personal sports through the mechanism of “learning, practice, competition, and evaluation”. On the other hand, as a future teacher, it is also necessary to improve their physical education and teaching ability through this mechanism, and be fully prepared for employment.
5.4. Improving Other Comprehensive Literacy Besides Specialized Skills, Responding to Changing Situations, and Expanding Employment Channels
Aiming at the future situation, there is a must to have a long-term view. Starting from the admission of freshmen, it is necessary to advocate that students should have an open mind to meet the changing situation in the future, guide students to study consciously and independently, improve their comprehensive ability, establish ideals and beliefs, and develop from their own majors. Starting from their own majors, the students can have the confidence and courage to develop their careers, it is necessary to provide the students a stage to display students' specialties and comprehensive skills, and rely on various channels to expand employment channels for students majoring in sports.
In a word, the problem of declining employment rate is not only due to factors such as global economic development and the impact of the epidemic, but also due to direction, quality, and management of talents in colleges and universities. The country attaches great importance to solving the problem of graduate employment. As a specific talent training unit, there is a need to pay more attention to the problem of talent export. It is also necessary to start from ourselves, do a good job of long-term planning for talent training, start from reality, and effectively solve the problems existing in talent training. Finally, there is a must to deliver qualified and promising talents to the society.
Shunbi Mu is responsible for the questionnaire revision, general framework of the thesis, conclusions and review of the draft. Zhenghao Chen contributed to the questionnaire design, analysis of thesis data, etc.
Cite This Article
TY - CONF AU - Shunbi Mu AU - Zhenghao Chen PY - 2023 DA - 2023/03/14 TI - Exploration on the Cultivation of Special Skills for Students Majoring in Physical Education in Yunnan Normal University From the Perspective of Employment Preparation BT - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Education Studies: Experience and Innovation (ICESEI 2022) PB - Athena Publishing SP - 61 EP - 66 SN - 2949-8937 UR - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.230306.011 DO - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.230306.011 ID - Mu2023 ER -