This article contains the results of a study of the process of shaping the system of Turin squares in the period from 1565, when the city got the status of the Kingdom of Savoy capital, up to the current situation, within the territory of the historical core of the city. The research is carried out against the background of a historical and genetic analysis of the formation of parts and zones in accordance with their stages of evolution at different times (Roman camp, fortress-fortification, ‘commando zone’, burghs). The obtained data allowed us to present the historical and core model of the city and to trace back the genetic code of its development. The following was concluded: we reveal the principles of the location of squares, palaces and cathedrals, and their spatial relationships; variety of characteristics and parameters of areas, features of internal zoning; forms of organic reconstruction of a spontaneously formed urban structure from a medieval city to the representative ensembles of squares of the capital's appearance. The results of the study enrich the methodological basis of urban planning decisions while maintaining the historical status of cities.