Revised 2 October 2022
Accepted 27 January 2023
Available Online 14 March 2023
- Children's sports games
At present, there is still a relatively large gap between rural and urban areas in China, which is mainly reflected in the two aspects of kindergarten hardware facilities and the overall professional level of preschool teachers. Among them, how to better help preschool teachers in rural areas to standardize teaching behavior, improve the competence of preschool teachers in rural areas, and further help preschool teachers improve their sports and play teaching ability on this basis, not only can better promote the development and progress of early childhood education in rural areas, but also has great value for the smooth realization of China's rural revitalization strategy.
- © 2023 The Authors. Published by Athena International Publishing B.V.
- Open Access
- This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Competency is the foundation of teachers' teaching activities, and teachers must have corresponding competency to better promote the development of education. Teaching of early childhood is based on the development of children's motor ability, enhancement of children's physical fitness, development of good moral character and necessary understanding and language ability as basic tasks. However, at present, in many regions of China, especially in rural areas, due to the shortcomings of teachers in their own competence and certain deviations in the understanding of early childhood education tasks, there is still a relatively serious “primary school” tendency in early childhood education, which not only greatly affects children's interest in knowledge learning, but also has a certain negative impact on children's future physical and mental development. Early childhood sports game education can greatly improve the physical fitness and motor ability of children, at the same time, a teacher should focus on improving self-competence, and standardizing their teaching behavior, to better promote the healthy development of early childhood education in rural areas.
2. PROPOSAL OF THE QUESTIONS
In recent years, more and more problems have emerged in early childhood education in rural areas. As most parents of young children work in cities, there are relatively many “left behind children” in kindergartens in rural areas. In order to let students receive education earlier, parents have sent them to kindergartens. However, some of them are unlicensed kindergartens, which to a large extent leads to many hidden dangers in preschool education itself. First, because some kindergartens operate without certificates, most of the teachers employed are left behind women in rural areas, and there are obvious deficiencies in professional quality and competence. Child abuse occurs frequently, which seriously affects the normal order of early childhood education . Second, there are obvious deficiencies in the hardware conditions of kindergartens in rural areas, which cannot meet the entertainment needs of children very well. Therefore, many kindergartens have turned the direction of education to books, blindly imparting primary school knowledge in advance, making the problem of “primary education” that is explicitly prohibited by the national education authorities still serious. To a great extent, this has affected the development of early childhood education in rural areas . Based on this, this article conducts field research on rural kindergartens in many places in Shaanxi Province, understands the basic status of sports game teaching in kindergartens and the competency of teachers, clarifies the existing problems and puts forward solutions.
3. STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS
3.1. Research Design
3.1.1. Research Alignment
In order to more systematically understand the current situation of sports game teaching in kindergartens in rural areas of Shaanxi Province and the competency of preschool teachers, based on the platform of Shaanxi Primary and Middle School Kindergarten Teacher Development Center, this study conducted a questionnaire survey on 100 kindergarten teachers from 10 major cities in Shaanxi Province who participated in rural kindergarten teacher growth training and excellent kindergarten teacher turn training. A total of 160 questionnaires were sent this time, and 157 documents were actually recovered. After removing the invalid questionnaires, 152 valid questionnaires were finally left, with the validity of 95.00%. In addition, 10 other rural kindergarten teachers were interviewed. Finally, all the obtained correlations were input into Excel 2019 and SPSS22.0 software for statistical analysis.
3.1.2. Research Methods
The research methods used in this study mainly include questionnaire survey, interview and literature research. The competency model for teachers proposed by Dr. Xu Jianping in 2004, the competency coding dictionary compiled by Hay and the “Professional Standards for Preschool Teachers” are taken as the main reference. Based on these relevant references, the “Questionnaire on the Competency of Preschool Teachers in Rural Areas” and the “Questionnaire on the Development of Children's Sports Games in Rural Areas” were compiled.
3.2. Research Results and Analysis
3.2.1. Current Structure of Preschool Teachers in Rural Areas Is Not Reasonable
Early childhood teachers in rural areas are the main force to carry out early childhood education in rural areas, which determines the whole countryside.
The overall level and quality of local teachers, especially in the context of the rapid progress of new urbanization, the number of people in rural areas in China has decreased sharply, and the video screens of school-age children in rural areas have also decreased. In this context, the overall structure of preschool teachers in rural areas has also changed constantly. Among the 152 preschool teachers surveyed, there are 31 male teachers accounting for 20.39% of the total, and 121 female teachers accounting for 79.61%. In terms of educational level, there are 51 teachers with technical secondary school education or below accounting for 33.55% in total; 56 teachers with vocational high school education accounting for 36.84%; 33 teachers with college education accounting for 21.71%; and 10 teachers with undergraduate education accounting for 6.58%. From the perspective of professional and technical titles, there are 63 teachers without professional titles accounting for 41.45% in total; 18 teachers with tertiary professional titles in primary education accounting for 11.84%; 58 teachers with secondary professional titles in primary education accounting for 38.16%; 13 teachers with primary professional titles accounting for 8.55%. It can be seen from above that the current preschool teachers in rural areas are seriously unreasonable in terms of gender, age and professional title, which will undoubtedly play an important role in improving the quality of preschool education in rural areas.
3.2.2. Analysis on the Development of Children's Sports Games in Rural Areas
According to the questionnaire of 90 preschool teachers in rural areas, the current situation of sports game education in rural areas is not optimistic. More than 91.54% of kindergartens in rural areas do not meet the basic requirements of the national education department for children to have 2 hours of outdoor activities every day. In addition, 87.24% of children's sports games were carried out in a simple form, lacking necessary equipment. It can be seen that there are significant problems in the development of children's sports games in kindergartens in rural areas at present, which has greatly affected children's interest in participating in children's activities, and even led to some children's weariness of learning.
3.2.3. Overall Quality of Kindergarten Teachers in Rural Areas Is Generally Low
The professional quality mainly includes three parts: professional knowledge, professional spirit and professional ability. According to the research, the overall professional quality of preschool teachers in rural areas is relatively low. For example, in the questionnaire, there is “why to engage in education”, in which 81.56% of teachers are engaged in the preschool education industry because they cannot find other jobs, and some teachers are engaged in the preschool education industry because their parents forced them to do so. In addition, 82.05% of preschool teachers hope to change jobs when there are other job opportunities. Among all the rural preschool teachers surveyed in this survey, only 2.67% of them graduated from normal universities. More preschool teachers have directly entered rural kindergartens as preschool teachers after graduating from high school or even junior high school because they cannot find other jobs and have not received formal preschool education. As a teacher, if the teacher wants to develop better, his/her motive force is the teacher's own expectation for the realization of self-value or the realization of self-value. In addition, because most rural kindergarten teachers have no formal post establishment and lack the necessary post promotion mechanism, based on this, a large part of rural kindergarten teachers only regard education as a means of making a living, and do not have the ideal and belief of realizing self-value in their posts, which objectively leads to certain deficiencies in the professional quality of current kindergarten teachers.
3.2.4. Relatively Poor Attention to Children
According to the survey results of this study, at present, for preschool teachers in rural areas, one teacher is often responsible for the education and care of 10 or more children, which leads to the obvious shortage of teachers' time and energy. As a result, many teachers cannot effectively meet the emotional needs of children themselves and other related needs. In addition, there are some rural preschool teachers who also undertake the task of family farming and can only perform their obligations in the kindergarten, but after leaving the kindergarten, they have no time to carry out inspection activities and improve themselves through learning and training. In addition, most rural kindergartens are limited by their own funds, and it is difficult to provide more games and activity facilities for students, which also affects the development of children's game movement to a large extent. It not only seriously welcomes the enthusiasm of children to enter the kindergarten, but also is very unfavorable for the establishment of a harmonious relationship between teachers and children.
4. MEASURES TO IMPROVE DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS GAMES AND THE COMPETENCY OF TEACHERS IN KINDERGARTENS IN RURAL AREAS
4.1. Suggestions on Outdoor Activities of Kindergartens in Rural Areas
First, there is a necessity to further establish and improve the outdoor game venues and improve children's activity facilities. To better carry out diversified and interesting children's sports activities in kindergartens in rural areas, it is necessary to first improve the venues and related facilities. Specifically, through effective expansion of children's activity venues, and actively building a variety of new outdoor game venues, the schools should strive to enable children to better participate in sports activities, which plays an important role in better developing children's own sports ability . In addition, it is also necessary to actively purchase toys and game equipment to make students full of expectations for outdoor games, so they can more actively participate in outdoor games, which also plays an important role in helping children release their emotions.
Second, it is very important to further enrich the forms of game activities and enhance the overall interest of the activities. As it known to all, the early childhood stage is a stage full of exploration and curiosity. At this stage, rich and interesting outdoor activities are of great value for better helping children's healthy growth, and can greatly promote children's all-round development in the future.
Third, effective measures should be taken to improve the safety of play activities and ensure the safety of children. No matter what kind of outdoor activities or games are carried out, it is a prerequisite to ensure the safety of children in the process of activities. In the actual process of developing kindergarten sports games, it is necessary to ensure the safety of children in the first place. For different games, teachers should take security measures for children in the interaction process, improve the safety responsibility awareness of relevant personnel, and reduce the potential safety hazards that may occur in the game process.
4.2. Suggestions on Improving Competency of Preschool Teachers in Rural Areas
First, it is of great significance to actively promote the supply side reform of kindergarten teachers in rural areas. The so-called supply side reform of preschool teachers in rural areas mainly aims at making necessary changes in the current recruitment and training methods of rural teachers, and training a group of preschool teachers who can “stay and teach well” in rural areas according to the current basic situation of children in rural areas and the basic situation of preschool education in rural areas. The provincial education competent department makes unified planning, unified selection and accurate recruitment, and strictly follows this principle to do a good job of supplementing preschool teachers in rural areas, in order to solve the problem of insufficient allocation of rural teachers .
Second, it is to meet the individualized training needs of rural teachers. Efforts should be made to improve the training methods for rural teachers. In response to the individualized training needs of rural teachers in poor counties, “la carte” training should be given priority to, and various forms such as sending training to the countryside, expert guidance, school-based research and online research should be adopted to enhance the pertinence and effectiveness of the training. Through collective training and constant learning at ordinary times, teachers can improve knowledge, teaching and management, and then give full play to the creative thinking ability of preschool teachers. Preschool teachers will re-examine education, teaching and children's development. The renewal of these concepts will affect their educational behavior, and ultimately promote the improvement of rural preschool teachers' competency.
Third, it is to set up a rural kindergarten teacher workshop. It is a must to carry out paired support in the form of workshops, give full play to the professional guidance and radiation driving role of excellent kindergarten teachers. Within a certain period of time, excellent urban kindergarten teachers and rural kindergarten teachers should organize a number of theme workshops to evaluate and diagnose the problems that are strongly reflected and targeted by the workshop staff at a stage, put forward suggestions for improvement , and promote excellent backbone teachers lead the normal research and training of teachers' professional development in poor rural areas, thus improving the competency level of rural preschool teachers.
The development of rural education is the core and foundation of rural revitalization, and improving the quality of rural early childhood education is one of the important contents of rural education development. The low level of professional development of rural preschool teachers has become a bottleneck restricting the development of rural preschool education and even the development of preschool education nationwide, affecting the improvement of the overall level of rural preschool education and the balanced development of preschool education in China. Game is the basic form of activity in kindergarten education. The concept and behavior of educators determine the occurrence, development and end of children's play to a large extent. The effective guidance of teachers is of great value to children's physical and mental development.
Based on the current situation of rural preschool teachers' competency development, this study explores the reasons for the formation of their weak parts, proposes relevant strategies to improve teachers' competency, and then improves the level of rural preschool teachers' competency development, speeds up the realization of “children have education, learn and teach” against the background of “rural revitalization strategy”, and strives to make every child enjoy fair and quality education.
Fund project: Shaanxi Provincial “13th Five Year Plan” 2020 project “Rural Revitalization Strategy”.
“Investigation and Research on the Competency of Village Kindergarten Teachers” (SGH20Y1245).
Xianyang Normal University's school level scientific research project “Research on Teacher's Guidance Behavior in Children's Games” (XSYK18013).
Cite This Article
TY - CONF AU - Yuan Yuan PY - 2023 DA - 2023/03/14 TI - Analysis of Teachers' Teaching Conduct and Competency in Children's Sports Games BT - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Education Studies: Experience and Innovation (ICESEI 2022) PB - Athena Publishing SP - 263 EP - 267 SN - 2949-8937 UR - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.230306.042 DO - https://doi.org/10.55060/s.atssh.230306.042 ID - Yuan2023 ER -